Scholarly Societies

Repertorium Veterrimarum Societatum Litterariarum
Inventory of the Oldest Scholarly Societies

Verba Litteraria Eorumque Contractiones in Linguis Variis
Literary Terms and their Contractions in Various Languages
Introductory Remarks
The Objects To Which We Refer ntil just a few decades ago, it was commonplace to see expressions like the following in footnotes (and sometimes the list of bibliographic references) in newly-published scholarly papers: et. seq.ibid.loc. cit.op. cit. And, of course, this type of expression is endemic in the older literature.
Why it is Important to Recognize these Expressions hese expressions typically occur in a footnote in an article (or monograph), although they are sometimes found in the bibliography at the end of the document. If you do not recognize the significance of these expressions, you may end up believing that one of these expressions (like ibid) is actually part of a journal name or book name. If this happens, then you will have difficulty identifying the item that is being cited.
Geographical Considerations t appears that Latin expressions are favoured in scholarly literature written in English and Romance languages (e.g. French, Italian, Spanish). On the other hand., at least some of the older literature in German has its own expressions - and similarly for Dutch literature. As it happens, we have found nothing similar for Scandinavian languages.
The Compilation of The Table Below
The Latin Expressions iven that much of the older scholarly literature is written in either English or one of the Romance Languages (like French, Italian or Spanish), it is relatively easy to find information of the type found in the table below. One of the more complete listings for the Latin expresions is found in the following Wikipedia article: It was occasionally necessary to consult the Internet for additional information.

The German Expressions inding similar literary expression in German was rather more challenging. Here is another Wikipedia article that was helpful: Sadly, this resource was far from complete, with the result that the Editor (a professional Librarian with many decades of experience and a reading knowledge of German) was forced to rely upon an arcane bag of tricks - tricks that went far beyond simply using a translation tool for a direct translation of something like "op. cit." into German (which really does not generally work well).

The Dutch Expressions ecause there is a significant amount of important scholarly literature written in Dutch prior to 1850, the Editor (who can read Dutch) decided to attempt to find equivalent expressions in Dutch. This proved even more arduous than the exercise of doing so with German expressions. Occasionally the Editor had to enlist assistance from his husband (whose first language is Dutch) to find equivalent Dutch expressions. A fair amount of guessing and speculation was also indispensible.

Tabula Explicanda
An Explanatory Table
cf = confer / conferatur Compare vgl = vergleiche vgl = vergelijk
eg = exemplum gratia For example zB = zum Beispiel bijv = bijvoorbeeld
et al = et alia And others ua = und andere ea = en andere(n)
et seq = et sequens And the following item (often meaning page/pages) ff = fortfolgende ev = en volgende / en verder
etc = et cetera And so forth / And others usw = und so weiter ezv = en zo voort
fl = floruit Florished (as of a person)    
ia = inter alia And others    
ibid = ibidem in the same place ebd = ebenda tzp = terzelfder plaats (at the place cited)
ie = id est That is dh = das heißt
di = das ist
dwz = dat wil zeggen
inf = infra Below (see below) su = siehe unten  
loc cit = loco citato In the place cited aaO = am angeführten Ort tap = ter aangehaalde plaatse
op cit = opera citato In the work cited Perhaps the same as "loc cit" = aaO? Perhaps the same as "loc cit" = tap?
passim = passim Here and there = throughout the work    
qv = quod vide Which see sd = siehe dort zd = zie daar
sic = sicut So / thus = as it appears (to denote a possible error)    
sup = supra Above (see above) so = siehe oben  
viz = videlicet = videre licet Namely = that is to say näml = nämlich  

Modified 2024, February 14
Jim Parrott, Editor
Repertorium Veterrimarum Societatum Litterariarum
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